打造一座有時間感的建築 半畝塘創辦建築師江文淵

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hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” margin_bottom=”20px” margin_bottom_mobile=”-90px” margin_bottom_small=”-25px” content_align_medium=”center” margin_top_small=”0px” margin_right_small=”0px” margin_left_small=”-5px” margin_bottom_medium=”-70px” margin_top_medium=”0px” text_transform=”var(–awb-typography5-text-transform)”]INFINITE[/fusion_title][fusion_title content_align=”center” size=”2″ font_size=”3.5em” line_height=”1.36em” letter_spacing=”0px” text_color=”var(–awb-color6)” style_type=”default” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” margin_top_mobile=”0px” margin_bottom_mobile=”10px” margin_top_small=”0px” margin_bottom_small=”0px” text_shadow=”yes” text_shadow_vertical=”10px” text_shadow_horizontal=”0px” text_shadow_blur=”20″ text_shadow_color=”hsla(var(–awb-color7-h),var(–awb-color7-s),var(–awb-color7-l),calc( var(–awb-color7-a) – 60% ))” margin_bottom_medium=”0px” fusion_font_variant_title_font=”var(–awb-typography2)” fusion_font_family_title_font=”var(–awb-typography2-font-family)”]SUMMER 2022 台新銀行無限專刊[/fusion_title][fusion_title title_type=”text” rotation_effect=”bounceIn” display_time=”1200″ highlight_effect=”circle” loop_animation=”off” highlight_width=”9″ highlight_top_margin=”0″ title_link=”off” link_target=”_self” content_align=”left” size=”1″ text_shadow=”no” text_shadow_blur=”0″ gradient_font=”no” gradient_start_position=”0″ gradient_end_position=”100″ gradient_type=”linear” radial_direction=”center center” linear_angle=”180″ style_type=”default” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” sticky_display=”normal,sticky” font_size=”33px”]

打造一座有時間感的建築 半畝塘創辦建築師江文淵 BMT Architects[/fusion_title][fusion_imageframe image_id=”36780|large” skip_lazy_load=”skip” hover_type=”none” align_medium=”center” align_small=”none” align=”center” lightbox=”no” linktarget=”_self” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” sticky_display=”normal,sticky” filter_hue=”0″ filter_saturation=”100″ filter_brightness=”100″ filter_contrast=”100″ filter_invert=”0″ filter_sepia=”0″ filter_opacity=”100″ filter_blur=”0″ filter_hue_hover=”0″ filter_saturation_hover=”100″ filter_brightness_hover=”100″ filter_contrast_hover=”100″ filter_invert_hover=”0″ filter_sepia_hover=”0″ filter_opacity_hover=”100″ filter_blur_hover=”0″ margin_top=” “]https://www.ciaotw.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/半畝塘創辦建築師江文淵-1-1.jpg[/fusion_imageframe][/fusion_builder_column][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ layout=”1_1″ center_content=”no” target=”_self” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” background_position=”left top” background_repeat=”no-repeat” hover_type=”none” border_style=”solid” border_position=”all” box_shadow=”no” box_shadow_blur=”0″ box_shadow_spread=”0″ animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ first=”true” last=”true” margin_top=”0px” background_blend_mode=”overlay” border_sizes_top=”0px” border_sizes_bottom=”0px” border_sizes_left=”0px” border_sizes_right=”0px” min_height=”” link=””][fusion_text columns=”1″]

TEXT_Daniel PHOTO_ 蔡勝義、半畝塘

你心目中的「家」是什麼樣貌? 我們對家居空間的想像是什麼?家的樣子反映了居住者的個性與狀態,建築的樣貌則是時代的縮影,訴說著當代文明發展的歷程。半畝塘不只是在設計建造一棟建築,更是在打造一個生態系,在這裡人與自然共生共榮,人們逐漸找回與自然失去的連結。

「半畝方塘一鑒開,天光雲影共徘徊。問渠哪得清如許,唯有源頭活水來。」出自朱熹《讀書有感》的這首詩,描寫一方清澈的池塘反射著天光雲影,清澈如鏡,原因是源頭有著源源不斷的活水。詩中的意境場景在「半畝塘」執行的案子中都可以看得到,從一方流動的池水開展出豐富的生態系,而人與自然就在這樣的環境中共存共榮,這也是江文淵建築師提倡的「人天共好」的概念。

來到新竹高鐵站附近的新興重劃區,周邊高樓林立,其中3棟建築的外型格外引人注目,錯層的陽台種植大量的綠樹,從上到下被一片綠意所包覆,建築與綠色植栽結合,彷彿一個巨大的有機生命體,這是半畝塘的「若山」系列,建築概念體現了半畝塘關照人與自然環境的一套建築論述與實踐之道。

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節氣建築 五度空間的建築

半畝塘核心的建築概念就是「節氣建築」,要談節氣建築,必須從人與自然的連結斷裂開始說起,西方工業革命後,有了人定勝天的思想,提倡建築工業化、模組化,去地域風土的國際樣式建築出現,以模仿歐式的厚牆文化建築為大宗,同時,空調的發明讓人不知寒暑,人們失卻了對自然環境的感知,遺失了時間感,節氣建築的提倡,意在找回時間感。

東方文明的節氣概念是過去華人常民的生活指南,涵蓋著人與自然如何和諧相處的智慧,「時間」的向度被特別的強調。江文淵:「好的建築一定要有強烈的時間感,能夠隨著四季晨昏對應變化。節氣建築就是用節氣來談五度空間,如何在時間向度內,與自然和諧相處。」江文淵進一步解釋所謂的五度空間,在原本的三度空間之外,第四度是「時間」,第五度則是「覺識」,指我在裡面的意識,而第四度和第五度就是當代建築缺少的向度,如何找回必須仰賴「自然之道」。

[/fusion_text][/fusion_builder_column][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ layout=”3_5″ center_content=”no” target=”_self” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” background_position=”left top” background_repeat=”no-repeat” hover_type=”none” border_style=”solid” border_position=”all” box_shadow=”no” box_shadow_blur=”0″ box_shadow_spread=”0″ animation_type=”fade” animation_direction=”right” animation_speed=”0.6″ first=”true” last=”true” element_content=”” border_sizes_top=”0px” border_sizes_bottom=”0px” border_sizes_left=”0px” border_sizes_right=”0px” spacing_left=”2.4%” background_blend_mode=”overlay” min_height=”” link=””][fusion_imageframe hover_type=”none” align=”center” lightbox=”no” linktarget=”_self” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” image_id=”36939|large”]https://www.ciaotw.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/CleanShot-2022-06-20-at-14.44.28@2x.jpg[/fusion_imageframe][/fusion_builder_column][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ layout=”1_1″ center_content=”no” target=”_self” hide_on_mobile=”medium-visibility,large-visibility” background_position=”left top” background_repeat=”no-repeat” hover_type=”none” border_style=”solid” border_position=”all” box_shadow=”no” box_shadow_blur=”0″ box_shadow_spread=”0″ animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ first=”true” last=”true” border_sizes_top=”0px” border_sizes_bottom=”0px” border_sizes_left=”0px” border_sizes_right=”0px” background_blend_mode=”overlay” min_height=”” link=””][fusion_text columns=”1″]

水綠森林 在都市造一座山

面對極端天氣與氣候發生的頻率增加,帶來了高溫、強降雨、乾旱等災害,建築也必須要有相應的對策。江文淵認為,「解決極端氣候的解方是『以道行道』,傾聽自然的聲音,把古老的智慧找回來。」

於是找回自然的第一步是大量植栽,把樹種回來,鬱鬱蔥蔥的豐富植株是若山最顯著的特色,層層錯落的陽台與合院上種植了樹木植栽,透過大量植栽,建築本體外層包覆著一層「樹皮層」,當夏天陽光照射,表面溫度與一般RC建築相比,降到攝氏30度左右。接著把水導進來,水是生態之源,與周邊樹木植栽建構起一個生態系統。若山系列在庭院造了一方水塘,透過收集、過濾雨水技術,讓水池裡保持源源不絕的活水,夏季時水塘能夠讓周邊溫度降到攝氏25-27度。當建築整體的溫度降低了,與周遭環境的溫度差就會形成對流風(正負壓),風裡帶著植物的芬多精、負離子和氧氣,徐徐清風吹來,高溫的問題自然解決了。

從若山I發展到II及III,半畝塘不斷試驗、優化各項技術,發展出一套高密度垂直綠化、水文涵養、和生態植株的實作心得。建築的綠覆率(建築基地綠化程度指標)達到70%便能有效舒緩都市熱島效應,若山I的綠覆率達到150%,若山II立體綠化技術更進步,綠覆率達到220%,同時處理水的方式更加成熟,若山III則是都市造山的集大成,有了之前的經驗,綠覆率高達265%,等於用一塊建地,還給地球2.65倍的森林。

一趟若山的導覽過程,彷彿在上一堂生態教育課,圍繞著建物的綠籬植物,可看見許多台灣在地原生物種,例如蘭嶼山馬茶、臺灣澤蘭等,就像來到了植物園。由於基地位處新竹,冬季東北季風強勁吹拂,因此建築立面上的植物選擇在地抗風的物種,例如在芎林、香山常見的九芎、流蘇、楊梅等。

經過嚴謹的科學調查研究,半畝塘以「適地適種」的概念,讓這塊基地囊括豐富的生態地貌。在若山II設置了一條住戶可以爬山回家的路,拾著石階緩緩的往上爬,周遭盡是熟悉的臺灣淺山生態系風景,為實踐里山生活更前進了一步。在若山III則是將水域面積極大化,因此生態物種的密度也迅速增加,模擬台灣淡水系的生態棲地,池中復育著台灣淡水溪魚、石賓、馬口魚等。若山III共擁有2萬多棵植物、254種動物,豐富的生態環境讓人驚嘆,住在這裡的山民們甚至曾看到老鷹、領角鴞、螢火蟲等生物出沒。

江文淵:「把水綠森林找回來,極端氣候的問題就會舒緩。」半畝塘的都市造山運動持續中,已經為這座城市找回將近2公頃的森林綠地,增加近1500噸的固碳量,涵養2800噸的水資源,找回生態棲地以及多元物種,形成一套「生態系統服務」,提供人與自然生態宜居的好地方。

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圍著篝火而生的居住空間

家的樣子從古到今有什麼樣的變化?以家居空間的設計來說,最重要的要素是什麼?江文淵:「設計上應該要回到本質思考,在沒有建築師之前,家是什麼樣子?」猿人在山洞裡圍著篝火,那盆火是維繫一個家最重要的核心,也是建築最初的原型,它能夠取暖、烹煮食物、驅趕野獸。回到現代,民以食為天,廚房、餐廳空間都是家庭重要的中心,以若山為例,室內的空間規劃也是以廚房、餐廳為中心凝聚家人溫度,向外發散則是可採集香草的窗台,種著原生喬木的陽台,人與自然無縫串接。

人的生活向度離不開自然,我們總是嚮往自然,自古以來,半戶外作為室內與室外的中介過渡空間,它充滿曖昧、多元性,以東方傳統文化來說,它就是院埕。若山同樣有半戶外空間的設計,家家戶戶內有一個四方合院,地板下嵌式設計,人們可在此歇息,多元的空間使用,讓家的生活多了更多可能性。

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半畝塘環境整合

半畝塘是一個土地關懷及環境友善的建築專業團隊。1997年由江文淵建築師創辦,從建築師事務所起家,承接建築、室內、景觀設計等業務,開啟建築整合第一步。2003年成立營造團隊,發展成為了兼具營造能力的整合型團隊。2006年投身建設開發的領域,學習自己當業主,逐步整合建築產業上下游,從取得一塊土地開始,落實我們生態開發的理想。

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[/fusion_title][fusion_title content_align=”center” size=”2″ font_size=”5em” line_height=”1.4em” letter_spacing=”0px” text_color=”var(–awb-color7)” style_type=”default” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” margin_top=”-1.26em” margin_bottom=”10px” margin_top_mobile=”-0.8em” margin_bottom_mobile=”10px” margin_top_small=”-0.8em” margin_bottom_small=”10px” fusion_font_variant_title_font=”var(–awb-typography2)” fusion_font_family_title_font=”var(–awb-typography2-font-family)”]merch[/fusion_title][fusion_text rule_style=”default” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” fusion_font_variant_text_font=”var(–awb-typography5)” fusion_font_family_text_font=”var(–awb-typography5-font-family)” font_size=”var(–awb-typography5-font-size)” line_height=”var(–awb-typography5-line-height)” letter_spacing=”var(–awb-typography5-letter-spacing)” text_transform=”var(–awb-typography5-text-transform)” content_alignment_small=”center” content_alignment_medium=”center”]Featured Products